Note: 08/07/09 Morning


[Working Style]

  • have a fixed schedule
  • outsourcing
  • low cost labor
  • being made redundant

Do you live to work or work to live?

[Unfair working condition]

  • doing unpaid overtime
  • unhealthy working environment
  • no sick leave
  • no maternity leave
  • no paternity leave
  • inadequate break or rest time
  • overloaded with work
  • having long working hours


  • children do not receive enough emotional support and guidance
  • work voluntarily
  • low-level work place

there is strong demand for a product

  • take industrial action against a company
  • go to a [union|trade union]


  1. Read the summery carefully, sentence by sentence. Understand it. (Try to predict the answer.)
  2. Look at the gaps. Identify the word form (noun, singular, plural, verb, adjective, adverb). (Try to predict the answer.)
  3. Circle / square around the scanning words (Numbers, Names, Capital letters, Rare nouns, Rare words).
  4. Look at in front of and after the gap. Think of synonyms.
  5. Paraphrasing: saying the same thing in a different way (active / passive, comparatives / superlatives).
  6. Scan for a start point and finish point.

Young people can upskill quickly.
Young people are very visual literate.


  • get work
  • find work
  • do the kind of work
  • do for a living
  • make a living
  • offered a job
  • take on that
  • fire from a job
  • go on strike
  • make redundant : (not as string as it but) fire
  • * redundant : [adjective] no longer needed or useful; superfluous
  • working conditions
  • independent conductor
  • economic recession
  • * recession : [noun] a period of temporary economic decline during which trade and industrial activity are reduced, generally identified by a fall in GDP in two successive quarters
  • * recede : [verb] go or move back or further away from a previous position
  • a receding hairline
  • current economic climate
  • gain employment
  • be fired from
  • unskilled workers
  • blue colour workers
  • white colour workers
  • a highly-educated society
  • * director : [noun] a person who is in charge of an activity, department, or organization
  • * supervise : [verb] observe and direct the execution of (a task, project, or activity)
  • * supervisor : [noun]
  • personnel officer
  • public relations officer
  • * spin doctors : [noun] a spokesperson employed to give a favorable interpretation of events to the media, esp. on behalf of a political party
  • * surgeon : [noun] a medical practitioner qualified to practice surgery
  • * cater : [verb] provide (food and drink), typically at social events and in a professional capacity
  • * catering
  • * trade (->physical worker) : a skilled job, typically one requiring manual skills and special training
  • refuse collector (=garbage collector)
  • * refuse : [noun] matter thrown away or rejected as worthless; trash
  • to what extent (=how much)
  • multi-tasking
  • * spontaneous (positive) : [adjective] performed or occurring as a result of a sudden inner impulse or inclination and without premeditation or external stimulus
  • * impulsive (negative) : [adjective] acting or done without forethought
  • * sensible (=not crazy) : [adjective] (of a person) possessing or displaying prudence
  • visual literacy
  • * literacy : [noun] the ability to read and write
  • * overestimate : [verb] estimate (something) to be better, larger, or more important than it really is
  • * exaggerate (=make something bigger than real) : [verb] represent (something) as being larger, greater, better, or worse than it really is
  • * duration : [noun] the time during which something continues